As in the electrolysis of sodium chloride soultion,when copper(II) chloride is electrolysed, pale green chloride gas bubbles off form the anode. (c) At anode, chloride ions lose electrons. Question 5 of 20. Quantitative electrolysis. ehsaltiora. The production of chlorine to form compounds to sterilise water has been one of the most important contributions to public health, giving millions of people clean drinking water, free from microbes. Writing a linear equation. Predicting Products Of Electrolysis. Non-metal ionic elements or compounds will be collected at the anode where they lose their extra electrons. Electrolysis of sodium chloride solution (brine) and bromides and iodides 4. 25 Explain the formation of the products in the electrolysis, using inert electrodes, of some electrolytes, including: copper chloride solution, sodium chloride solution, sodium sulfate solution, water acidified with sulfuric acid, molten lead bromide…. In this case, the aluminum is obtained from an ore called bauxite. Nigel Baldwin 1,711 views. Unpause the model. The lessons include: 1. jade_hartley27 Entire OCR A-Level Chemistry Course Powerpoint $ 4. (a)In the first stage of the process a solution of sodium chloride is electrolysed using a voltage of 4. Second: Place the two copper wires in a copper(I) chloride solution. Remove Ads. Reproduced with the permission of Nelson Thornes Ltd from PATRICK FULLICK et al, ISBN 0-7487-9644- 4. In the scientific study of chemistry, the process of electrolysis involves using direct electric current to prompt a chemical reaction which otherwise would be non-spontaneous. Copper(II) chloride catalyzes the chlorination in the production of vinyl chloride and dichloroethane. Author: Created by simondobbs. immerse the two electrodes 3cm into the copper sulphate solution (note that the depth of the electrodes affect the rate of electrolysis). Chlorine gas is obtained at one of the. Author: Created by simondobbs. Negatively charged ions move to the positive electrode during electrolysis. An alloy is a mixture of two elements, one of which is a metal. Perhaps with effort near all. Quantitative aspects of electrolysis - Faraday's laws. Electrolysis of copper(II) chloride solution 7. Determine the products at the cathode and anode, when aqueous copper (II) sulfate solution undergoes electrolysis, using graphite electrode. AQA Required Practical - The electrolysis of copper (II) chloride. electrolysis. 1) Pour 1 mL copper electrolyte solution in an Erlenmeyer flask. Electrowinning is an electrolysis process that is used for recovering metals in aqueous solution after the ore undergoes one or more hydrometallurgical processes. An electrolyte formed by dissolving an ionic compound contains: hydrogen ions from the water, and positive ions from the compound. g electrolysis of conc. electrolysis of CuSO 4 using copper anode; electrolysis of sodium chloride solution using mercury. Grow a beautiful "tin-man" crystal tree by running an electric current through a solution of tin(II) chloride. cathode 10. Method Pour 50ml of Copper (II) Chloride solution into a 100ml beaker. Electrolysis with different substances Example 2: Copper (II) chloride solution in water (where the electrodes are inert) If you are asked about the electrolysis of this solution in an exam you would not be expected to know the details of the shell arrangement for the element copper (because we only need the first 20 elements). The negative chloride ions (Cl −) are attracted to the positive electrode. Not enough is best and. Electrolysis of dilute sodium chloride; 7. (C) the mass of the anode decreases but the mass of the cathode remains constant. Copper(II) or Cupric Chloride is a highly water soluble copper source for uses compatible with chlorides. Electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide (and other molten ionic compounds) 6. Electrolysis is used in the extraction of metals from their ores. In the electrolysis of dilute sulfuric acid, hydrogen was formed at the cathode and oxygen (a non-metal) was formed at the anode. 3) Add 3 drops ammonia. There is competition between the copper ions and the hydrogen ions. Materials Commercial battery (9V), 2 conducting wires such as copper wires, (aligator clips or aluminium foil are optional), coffee filter, 2 glass or plastic […]. One is by using dielectric couplings; but is technically not permitted in many areas (NYC included). (c) Chlorine gas is bubbled into a sodium bromide solution. In this GCSE Chemistry video we continue to look at electrolysis of aqueous solutions. A hydrometallurgical process for recovering pure silver from sludge formed at the anode in copper electrolysis and other sources comprises suspending the sludge, after removing Pb, Ni, and Cu, in hydrochloric acid, subsequently adding an alkali metal hypochlorite, preferably NaOCl, to the resulting suspension to convert the silver present to AgCl, filtering to separate the AgCl containing. C solution after 4 d 206 hours of pre-electrolysis. During the electrolysis of […]. Zinc is used in PGM refining to cement values from dilute solutions. The H + ions remain in solution. Cl 2 gas liberated trough anode. of chlorine and sodium hydroxide by the electrolysis of sodium chloride. Electrolysis of an aqueous solution of table salt (NaCl, or sodium chloride) produces aqueous sodium hydroxide and chlorine, although usually only in minute amounts. What are the anode and cathode reactions. Electrolysis of hydrochloric acid 8. Electrolysis is the process by which an electric current is passed through a substance to affect a chemical change. Do you think you can answer all of the questions regarding electrolysis correctly in this quiz?. Even if you don't normally try the level 1 and level 2 activities, it is a good idea to do the activities on "Electrolysis" first, to make sure you are able to use the basics confidently. The silver produced was from 999 to 999. electrolysis of Copper Chloride solution by JANGHIER SHAH. (b) Copper sulfate solution was electrolysed using copper electrodes. Electrolysis of copper sulphate solution using platinum or carbon electrodes. Created: May 2, 2020. for copper, it is copper sulphate and for nickel, it is nickel chloride. Chemistry 100 ml of 15 g/L silver nitrate reacts with an unknown concentration solution of copper (ll) chloride. The colour of the copper layer deposited on a graphite electrode during electrolysis of an aqueous solution of copper(II) sulfate looks whitish-grey when inspected in situ. 6354 gm of copper by electrolysis of aqueous cupric solution, \[19. 26 (0) Popular paid resources. Electrolysis is a process which is used to start a non - spontaneous [ Which means an unfavourable] chemical reaction by the supply of direct electric current [ D. Electrolysis is the chemical decomposition of an ionic compound by the passing through it of an electric current. HCl and NaCl solution. Electrolysis of dilute sodium chloride; 7. When aqueous solutions of ionic compounds are electrolyzed, the anode and cathode half-reactions may involve the electrolysis of either water species (H 2 O, H +, OH-) or solute species (the cations and anions of the compound). Electrolysis uses an electrical current to move ions in an electrolyte solution between two electrodes. The half equations are. 99%, pure copper. We explore the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and look at how to write half equations for the reactions. of chlorine and sodium hydroxide by the electrolysis of sodium chloride. 26 (0) simondobbs Forces word search $ 1. The electrolysis is continued for seven more minutes will volume of solution kept at 1 0 0 m L and the current at 1. Prepare a solution of sodium chloride (NaCl). Etching can now join this conversation, as safer and more efficient. Turn it on. moomoomath. You asked :"What are the two half reactions for the electrolysis of Copper(II) Chloride?". The third solution is made from dissolved copper (II) sulfate (CuSO 4). (b) Chloride ion will attract to anode to discharge as a chlorine gas. When bronzes or other alloys of copper are placed in a 5 percent solution of sodium sesquicarbonate, the hydroxyl ions of the alkaline solution react chemically with the insoluble cuprous chlorides to form cuprous oxide and neutralize any hydrochloric acid by-product formed by hydrolysis to produce soluble sodium chlorides (Organ 1963b:100. Electrolysis with different substances Example 2: Copper (II) chloride solution in water (where the electrodes are inert) If you are asked about the electrolysis of this solution in an exam you would not be expected to know the details of the shell arrangement for the element copper (because we only need the first 20 elements). Electrolysis Copper Sulphate Solution. In the scientific study of chemistry, the process of electrolysis involves using direct electric current to prompt a chemical reaction which otherwise would be non-spontaneous. If it is an aqueous solution it will be:- 2H2O + 2e- ——-> H2 + 2OH- 2H2O ——-> O2 + 4H+ + 4e- If it is a molten solution it will be:- Na+ + e- ——-> Na and I'm not sure what SO42- forms (if anything) in a re. (b) Copper sulfate solution was electrolysed using copper electrodes. One is by using dielectric couplings; but is technically not permitted in many areas (NYC included). What happens during electrolysis of salt water with copper electrodes? From what I can tell this is copper chloride, but there is a slight brown substance (maybe just dirt off the coin). When a solution of tin (II) chloride is electrolyzed tin metal and chlorine gas are produced: SnCl2 (aq) → Sn (s) + Cl2 (g) When a solution of copper (II) chloride is electrolyzed copper metal and chlorine gas are produced: CuCl2. Copper(I) forms a chloride complex. After observing the results of this chemical reaction, you will determine the mass of iron which reacted and the mass of copper formed. 80 V  H+ (aq) + e-   → 1/2 H2 (g)     E° = 0. molten copper(II) chloride, CuCl2 1) What ions are present ? Cu2+ and Cl- ions 2) At the cathode: This negatively charged electrode attracts the Cu2+ ions The cathode gives 2 electrons to each Cu2+ ion The Cu2+ ions become Cu atoms and are deposited on the cathode. At the Cathode: 4OH- + 4e- → O 2 + 2H 2 O Oxygen from OH- ions is formed. Describe experiments to investigate electrolysis, using inert electrodes, of aqueous solutions such as sodium chloride, copper(II) sulfate and dilute sulfuric acid and predict the products Place inert electrodes (ones that wont react) into an aqueous solution. 2) 2 H2O + 2e- ---> H2 + 2 OH -. Non-metal ionic elements or compounds will be collected at the anode where they lose their extra electrons. Electrolysis is good for carrying out the non-spontaneous chemical reactions. Make Copper Chloride (3 ways). Additional Use: This method can be used to refine copper. (Be careful, the rods break easily!) Place the U-tube in a small beaker, then place the electrodes in the CuCl2 solution -- one at each end of the U-tube. There are two primary solutions in preventing stray electric current from destroying your water service line. The explanation is found in terms of the almost ideal complementary colours of the copper metal (orange red) and the. Electrolysis of Aqueous Solutions 2. Electrolysis of molten copper compound is too expensive. copper chloride solution molten lead. g, metals,graphite. Electrolysis is done in solutions, which contain enough ions so current can flow. Furthermore, in the electrolysis of solutions of chlorides the evolution of significant amounts of chlorine can cause distress to students and teachers. After electrolysis of a sodium chloride solution with inert electrodes for a certain period of time, 600 mL of the solution was left which was found to be 1 N in NaOH. Copper bromide and nickel. Electrolysis of concentrated sodium chloride solution (brine). Electrolysis of molten NaCl; 4. In the electrolysis of a molten group II metal chloride 2. 26 (0) abbie_h_kelsey iGCSE/GCSE - Electrolysis Products - Notes - Chemistry. electrolysis of Copper Chloride solution by JANGHIER SHAH. Hence, if also $\ce{H2}$ and $\ce{OH-}$ are produced during the electrolysis of aqueous solutions (this is less relevant for the reduction of $\ce{Cu^2+}$ to $\ce{Cu}$ which is considered in the question, but for example important for the chloralkali process) $$\ce{2H2O + 2e- -> H2 + 2OH-}$$ the electrolysis of chloride cannot be made complete. A redox reaction is a specific type. The electrolysis of copper(II) sulfate solution. Linear Formula CuCl 2. Cut & Stick diagram of electrolysis of copper chloride solution. Created: May 2, 2020. Oxidation occurs and the anode and reduction occurs at the cathode. Copper(II) chloride is prepared commercially by the action of chlorination of copper:. ELECTROLYSIS OF COPPER(II) SULFATE SOLUTION - Interactive Flash Animation - Flash simulation to understand what's happen at anode, cathode and salt bridge. In its most basic form, electrolysis is used to break a simple compound into its component elements. Introduction to electrolysis. The types of substance that can be split are ionic substances. So 234 tonnes of sodium chloride will give (23/58)*234 = 92. molten copper(II) chloride, CuCl2 1) What ions are present ? Cu2+ and Cl- ions 2) At the cathode: This negatively charged electrode attracts the Cu2+ ions The cathode gives 2 electrons to each Cu2+ ion The Cu2+ ions become Cu atoms and are deposited on the cathode. g electrolysis of conc. citycollegiate. Electrolysis of Copper Sulphate Solution - definition. (C) the mass of the anode decreases but the mass of the cathode remains constant. Electrolysis is good for carrying out the non-spontaneous chemical reactions. Cu 2+ + 2e – -> Cu. Huong Le AP Chemistry March 23, 2017 Mr. (a) Copper oxide reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce copper chloride and water. What are the products of electrolysis of brine with copper electrodes? + 2 Cl---> CuCl 2-+ e-in conc solution As soon as there is a build up of copper ions in solution, the evolution of hydrogen gas at the cathode will stop, and be replaced with the reverse of either of the above reactions as a cathode reaction. This time you can't start by working out the number of coulombs, because you don't know the time. Cut & Stick diagram of electrolysis of copper chloride solution. As far as electrolysis. However, a microscale version of the electrolysis of aqueous copper(II) chloride can be carried out on only two or three drops of solution (figure 2). Electrolysis of aqueous solutions; 6. electrolysis of Copper Chloride solution by JANGHIER SHAH. When an electric current is passed through the aqueous solution of CuCl 2, Cu +2 ions migrate towards cathode and Cl-1 ion towards anode. electrolysis of CuSO 4 using copper anode; electrolysis of sodium chloride solution using mercury. Thus, in electrolysis of dilute copper sulphate solution, Cu will be deposited at cathode and oxygen gas will be liberated at anode. Observe what happens for about 30 seconds. Calcium chloride undergoes ionization to give calcium ions as the cations and chloride ions as the anions as shown: CaCl2(aq) ---> Ca2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) Therefore, it can undergo electrolysis to produce calcium metal and chlorine gas as explained further. Alternating Current Electrolysis with Zinc Electrodes in Sodium Thiosulphate Solution, A Thesis, Presented to the Faculty of the Rice Institute Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree >of Master of Science, by • Herbert Wray Wilber, B. The ionic compound must either be in the molten state or in solution form. 95 (0) simondobbs Space Physics Wordsearch $ 1. For example, if we try to electrolyze a solution of sodium chloride, hydrogen is produced at the cathode instead of sodium:. Products of electrolysis depend upon : Electrolysis of dilute NaCl solution produces Cl 2 at anode. Suspended solids in plating solutions may cause roughness and burning of deposits. The substance present in the aqueous solution might be A lead (II) iodide B sodium chloride. {Remember that an ion is just an atom that has either a positive or negative charge}. In this paper we compute the cathodic cur- rent efficiency for deposition of copper from a copper chloride solution which contains high levels of ferric. Using the electrolysis of copper(II) chloride solution as an example, briefly discuss the factors affecting the discharge of ions in electrolysis. 995% trace metals basis Synonym: Cupric chloride CAS Number 7447-39-4. [High school chemistry] Electrolysis of concentrated sodium chloride solution with copper electrodes. (a) Sketch the cell and label the anode, the cathode, and the direction of electron flow. Electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride yields hydrogen and chlorine, with aqueous sodium hydroxide remaining in solution. Electrolysis of copper. A r of Cu = 63. Copper ions in solution are attracted to the cathode, where they are deposited as copper atoms 4. Gold Refining Machine Previous Next an average of thirty days refining The amount of gold left in the silver after reduction from the chloride reaches a maximum of 1 part in 10000 but is usually from to 13 of this quantity BUY Laboratory Small Plant Process Equipment. Copper is a very unreactive metal it's even below hydrogen in the reactivity series. experiment used an aqueous solution of copper chloride. An electrolysis lab completed in class. The electrolysis of sodium chloride solution (brine). 00 V  On the basis of their standard reduction electrode potential (E°) values, which reaction is feasible at the cathode and why?. A solution of sodium chloride in water contains:. Prezi's Staff Picks: InVision employees share their remote work secrets. - Concentrated aqueous sodium chloride, using inert electrodes. 5) Titrate with EDTA. Bubbles of colorless gas are formed. (no rating) 0 customer reviews. Cut & Stick diagram of electrolysis of copper chloride solution. I have found that upon adding sulphuric acid the films have been much more uniform (as you were suggesting in your previous discussion), and that on a microscopic level it also contributes to film. Zinc is more reactive than copper. citycollegiate. Furthermore, in the electrolysis of solutions of chlorides the evolution of significant amounts of chlorine can cause distress to students and teachers. I thought I'd enjoy the challenege 2. Water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sodium chloride, iron(II) sulphide (c) Air, sea water, town gas, sodium chloride solution. EC Number 231-210-2. With large-scale equipment, the volume of chlorine produced, caused breathing difficulties for some students. Question 5 of 20. Electrolysis of copper(II) chloride by Jeremy Gibbon & Kathryn Grace. Combine magnesium metal and hydrochloric acid solution. The positive ions are attracted to the negative cathode. Electrolysis is used in the extraction of metals from their ores. Rewrite the correct statement with the missing word/s : Cations migrate during electrolysis. Copper chloride in water Sulphuric acid. In its most basic form, electrolysis is used to break a simple compound into its component elements. Method Pour 50ml of Copper (II) Chloride solution into a 100ml beaker. Electrolysis of copper(II) chloride solution 7. Recommended Videos. As in the electrolysis of sodium chloride soultion,when copper(II) chloride is electrolysed, pale green chloride gas bubbles off form the anode. for copper, it is copper sulphate and for nickel, it is nickel chloride. Cut & Stick diagram of electrolysis of copper chloride solution. Obtain a micro U-tube filled with copper(II) chloride (CuCl2) solution and a 9-V battery with micro carbon (graphite) rods. 2 g of copper was deposited at the cathode. copper chloride or silver fluoride,) the metal will be evolved at the cathode. i know that as the electricity runs through the anode the copper turns into cu 2+ ions and then joins onto the anode because opposite charges attract and thats how the copper is purifiedi dont see why the copper sulfate solution is important in thiscouldnt water or some other. Use the information provided below to determine the identity of the group II metal. Anode (+) Cathode (-) Ion presents. The electrolysis of SOLUTIONS OF IONIC SUBSTANCES We can deduce which ions are in solution by looking at the formula for the compound in question, e. BBC Bitesize. In this activity you will break copper chloride into the elements from which it is made. Electrolytes are vulnerable to electrolysis. (4 marks, ★★★) a Copper(II) chloride b Potassium bromide c Zinc(II) sulfate d Sodium carbonate When a solution of sodium chloride undergoes electrolysis, two gases are formed at the electrodes. Chemistry 100 ml of 15 g/L silver nitrate reacts with an unknown concentration solution of copper (ll) chloride. Alternating Current Electrolysis with Zinc Electrodes in Sodium Thiosulphate Solution, A Thesis, Presented to the Faculty of the Rice Institute Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree >of Master of Science, by • Herbert Wray Wilber, B. (b) hydrogen ions, H+ and hydroxide ions, OH- from the partial dissociation of water molecules. The second solution contains dissolved potassium bromide (KBr). The calomel electrode is inserted as already described, the potentiostat is connected, and the electrolysis is performed at a cathode potential of 0. aqueous copper(II) sulfate and dilute sodium chloride solution (as essentially the electrolysis of water)) (iii) concentration effects (as in the electrolysis of concentrated and dilute aqueous sodium chloride) (In all cases above, inert electrodes are used. So copper forms at our copper electrode here. At the cathode a shiny orange layer is formed. 5) Titrate with EDTA. (a)In the first stage of the process a solution of sodium chloride is electrolysed using a voltage of 4. Procedure Fit the two strips of copper foil inside the beaker as shown, with the top 2 cm bent back over the edge of the beaker. Electrolysis: copper plating; 10. This investigation will examine one of the factors that affect the amount off copper deposited during the electrolysis of copper (II) sulphate solution. Copper chloride appears as a yellowish-brown powder (the anhydrous form) or a green crystalline solid (the dihydrate). Huong Le AP Chemistry March 23, 2017 Mr. Electrolysis only occurs when an ionic substance is molten or is a solution. Question 5 of 20. 7 tonnes of sodium. Y1 - 1997/1/1. The blue colour of the copper chloride solution becomes lighter in colour and the mass of the cathode increases as the copper ions in solution are reduced to copper which gathers on the cathode. The electrolysis of sodium chloride solution (brine). ii) Nature and Electrode Potential of Ions Present in the Electrolyte. The third solution is made from dissolved copper (II) sulfate (CuSO 4). At the cathode. Electrolysis of solutions and selective discharge. The products of electrolysing copper chloride solution are copper metal and chlorine gas. Application of Electrolysis. One of the solutions contains dissolved sodium chloride (NaCl). Electrolysis of copper(II) chloride by Jeremy Gibbon & Kathryn Grace. This reaction is represented by the equation ^iomff e -- ^ Chlorine ig) + electrons The overall reaction taking place in the fused sodium chloride is the sum of the individual reactions, that is-- Sodium Chloride Sodium j) + Chlorine (9) ions^) ions^) ( 44--3 4 VOLT BATTERY Electrolysis of copper sulphate solution: copperplating The. Banner 4 Summary Questions AQA GCSE Chemistry C6 Electrolysis Kerboodle Answers: Page No. Electrolysis uses an electrical current to move ions in an electrolyte solution between two electrodes. Links GCSE home AQA home. Created: May 2, 2020. Anodes are “conditioned” when new by developing a necessary black CuO film – Dummying. 1 the electrolysis of concentrated aqueous sodium chloride 2 the electrolysis of dilute sulfuric acid. The copper thus formed is to be purified by electrolysis In fact you get a brown precipitate of copper and a blue solution of copper(II) sulfate because of the disproportionation reaction. 95 (0) simondobbs Forces word search. An aqueous solution of a compound contains (a) anions and cations of the compound. Predict the products formed from the electrolysis of a molten, binary, ionic compound. copper chloride electrodes with electrolyte composition. Some of the zinc has become oxidised to zinc oxide. Sodium hydroxide : In the solution. At the Cathode: 4OH- + 4e- → O 2 + 2H 2 O Oxygen from OH- ions is formed. Question 5 of 20. So copper two plus ions in solution, and when those copper two plus ions gain those two electrons, copper two plus turns into solid copper. * Contact can severely irritate and burn the skin and eyes with possible eye damage. The electrolysis of copper(II) chloride solution was cited in many GCSE exemplar procedures. Please help. 1 mole of sodium chloride on electrolysis gives one mole of sodium which means 58 tonnes of sodium chloride on electrolysis gives 23 tones of sodium. The pitting corrosion of copper in chloride solution has been studied using potentiostatic polarisation and surface analysis techniques. Obtain a micro U-tube filled with copper(II) chloride (CuCl2) solution and a 9-V battery with micro carbon (graphite) rods. Electrolysis of Aqueous Solutions E values nature of the electrode concentration of the electrolyte electrolysis of water electrolysis of copper (II) sulphate electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride cf molten electrolytes where cations go to the cathode and anions go to the anode aqueous solution, there are more than one type of ion. ELECTROLYSIS OF COPPER(II) SULFATE SOLUTION - Interactive Flash Animation - Flash simulation to understand what's happen at anode, cathode and salt bridge. The new-type electrolysis-integrated ecological floating beds (EEFBs) were set up to study their water removal ability due to the excellent water treatment capacity of electrolysis, this enhanced. Brine is a concentrated solution of sodium chloride. 2Cl- - 2e- Cl 2 (chlorine gas at the (+)anode). Electrolysis of copper chloride solution on a small scale MVI 5513 - Duration: 8:15. Cut & Stick diagram of electrolysis of copper chloride solution. Negatively charged ions move to the positive electrode during electrolysis. What results I will collect: I will fill the beaker with copper chloride solution and set out the experiment while my partner will go and record the weight of the electrode. The intensity of the blue colour solution decreases because the concentration of copper(II) ions decreases. (a)In the first stage of the process a solution of sodium chloride is electrolysed using a voltage of 4. Chemicals and apparatus - U tube - carbon electrodes - copper (II) chloride - sodium iodide - destilled water - stand - wire - electric power. Reminders: Electrolysis (of copper sulfate) is a way of splitting up (decomposition) of the compound (copper sulfate) using electrical energy. Electrolysis of Copper Sulfate Whenever copper sulfate or CuSO 4 is added to water, it gets dissolved in the water. Even if you don't normally try the level 1 and level 2 activities, it is a good idea to do the activities on "Electrolysis" first, to make sure you are able to use the basics confidently. For example, if electricity is passed through copper chloride solution, the copper chloride is broken down to form copper metal and chlorine gas. The aqueous solution is exposed to an electric field by using two plates of conducting. What are the products of electrolysis of brine with copper electrodes? + 2 Cl---> CuCl 2-+ e-in conc solution As soon as there is a build up of copper ions in solution, the evolution of hydrogen gas at the cathode will stop, and be replaced with the reverse of either of the above reactions as a cathode reaction. In BTA inhibitor and its derivates, with increased acidity of solution its. The americium is not affected. Obtain a micro U-tube filled with copper(II) chloride (CuCl2) solution and a 9-V battery with micro carbon (graphite) rods. Finally, wash the product with 5 cm 3 of glacial acetic acid and 10 cm 3 of ethanol and dry it in air, or in a vacuum desiccator. At the cathode the reverse process takes place. Electrolysis with different substances Example 2: Copper (II) chloride solution in water (where the electrodes are inert) If you are asked about the electrolysis of this solution in an exam you would not be expected to know the details of the shell arrangement for the element copper (because we only need the first 20 elements). A purer product can be attained if ammonium chloride is added to the solution beforehand. (no rating) 0 customer reviews. g, metals,graphite. In this activity you will break copper chloride into the elements from which it is made. So copper two plus ions in solution, and when those copper two plus ions gain those two electrons, copper two plus turns into solid copper. Let's say we want to purify copper. Mass of cathode before application of current: 25. PubChem Substance ID 24853306. 4H 2 O(R) + 4e-62H 2 (g) + 4OH-(aq), EE-0. Electrolysis of copper(II) chloride by Jeremy Gibbon & Kathryn Grace. Products of electrolysis depend upon : Electrolysis of dilute NaCl solution produces Cl 2 at anode. The diagram shows an apparatus used for the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution. Two graphite electrodes were connected to a D. When the copper (Cu) gives up 2 electrons it forms a copper ion (Cu2+) which then goes into solution, turning the electrolyte blue / green, as you have observed. In the molten state, PbBr 2 exists as. State the products formed when the following aqueous solutions undergo electrolysis. The second part of this investigation covers the products formed during the electrolysis of copper sulfate solution using inert (graphite) electrodes. In solution, the cations are Cu2+ and H+. Which processes produce oxygen at one of the electrodes?. So copper forms at our copper electrode here. The benefits include an improved thickness distribution of the copper electrodeposited on the plated article, reduced metal waste, reduced plating times and. Given the stable and readily available nature of copper sulfate, it makes an inexpensive school laboratory material and eliminates the chlorine gas risk associated with. Observation: 1. Materials Commercial battery (9V), 2 conducting wires such as copper wires, (aligator clips or aluminium foil are optional), coffee filter, 2 glass or plastic […]. So let us dissolve the mixture in. Water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sodium chloride, iron(II) sulphide (c) Air, sea water, town gas, sodium chloride solution. Lid placed on top of petri dish 6-8V current DC Initially,. Hydrogen is made, as well as copper sulfate solution. For the electrolysis of copper sulfate solution using copper electrodes: • Why is it necessary to clean the copper electrodes with emery paper The electrolysis of sodium chloride solution is an industrial process. Copper oxide is insoluble in water. Copper will be produced because copper is less reactive than hydrogen. Electrolysis only occurs when an ionic substance is molten or is a solution. 635 g of copper at the cathode during the electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate solution if you use a current of 0. 3 the extraction of aluminium from pure aluminium oxide. Electrolysis: copper plating; 10. It describes the production of electrical energy from simple cells, i. Electrodes made from pencil lead are attached to a 9V battery to electrolyze various solutions. Sodium chloride must be heated until it is molten before it will conduct electricity. During electrolysis the ions present in the electrolyte are H + and OH- from water and Cu 2+ and Cl- from copper(II) chloride. During the electrolysis of copper (II) sulfate, or #"CuSO"_4"#, the deposition of copper can be seen on the cathode; at the same time, the anode will be dissolved by the process. 7v) Multimeter for measuring voltage. At the cathode a shiny orange layer is formed. - Each zinc atom transferred two electrons directly to a copper (II) ion in this redox reaction. If, however, the aim is simple electrolysis of concentrated solutions of aqueous NaCl, we get Hydrogen at the cathode and Chlorine at the anode. Cut & Stick diagram of electrolysis of copper chloride solution. Reactions occur at both electrode-solution interfaces because of the flow of electrons. Additionally, the copper sulfate electrolyte solution contains. A solution of sodium chloride in water contains:. The two electrodes are placed in a solution of copper(II) sulfate. During the electrolysis of …. Electrolysis means the breaking apart of something using electricity. Perhaps with effort near all. Created: May 2, 2020. Worksheet to accompany electrolysis of copper chloride practical aimed at lower ability pupils. pdf from SCIENCE 101 at Piedmont Hills High School. Energy consumption in copper refining by electrolytic process is 150 to 300 kWH/tonne of refined. Lancenigo di Villorba (TV), Italy. Macasaet Period Electrolysis of Copper Chloride salt Date. Copper(I) forms a chloride complex. Electrolysis – the decomposition of a compound into its elements by an electric current. Copper(II) chloride is used in the Copper–chlorine cycle in which it splits steam into a copper oxygen compound and hydrogen chloride, and is later recovered in the cycle from the electrolysis of copper(I) chloride. The kinetic of the reactions can be changed. Whereas in the case of copper electrode, the electrode can oxidize itself. So in this reaction what products were produced by electrolysis at the anode and cathode. Writing a linear equation. Further refining is done by electrolysis. Electrolysis of copper(II) chloride solution. Murphy,1 H. NaCl(aq) can be reliably electrolysed to produce hydrogen. Electrolysis of copper(II) chloride by Jeremy Gibbon & Kathryn Grace. • You need: carbon rods (you could get these from dismantled batteries), copper chloride solution electrolyte in a beaker, a power supply (e. PREV: Cuprous Chloride is a Whitish to Grayish Solid NEXT: Basic Copper Sulphate Anode - Phosphorus Copper Process. ” Copper Chloride Solution Cu Cl 2 Chlorine copper “5. Concentration of copper (II) sulphate (electrolyte) remains unchanged. a half-equation Electrolysis of molten ionic compounds e. Electrolysis of Aqueous Solutions. Copper chloride in water Sulphuric acid. Using Question #1 as a guide: (a) Identify the products that were formed at the anode and the cathode in the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution, giving the specific evidence for their formation. An Introduction to the Electrolysis Process. Here is what happens during electrolysis: Positively charged ions move to the negative electrode during electrolysis. A zinc electrode and a copper electrode are placed in a beaker containing an aqueous solution of zinc sulfate, ammonium citrate, and ammonium chloride. can be separated by electrolysis. The electrolysis of copper(II) chloride solution was cited in many GCSE exemplar procedures. What is a Half Equation?. Hydrogen chloride is decomposed into hydrogen and chlorine gases $2HCl (aq) \rightarrow H_{2} (g) + Cl_{2} (g)$ Volume of chlorine gas collected is slightly less than the volume of hydrogen gas because some chlorine gas dissolves into the electrolyte solution. Negatively charged ions move to the positive electrode during electrolysis. What effect has an increase in concentration on the rate at which copper forms in the electrolysis?. Zinc powder can be made by electrolysis of basic zinc solution. 26 (0) abbie_h_kelsey iGCSE/GCSE - Electrolysis Products - Notes - Chemistry. - Aqueous copper(II) sulphate using carbon electrodes - Aqueous copper (II) sulphate using copper electrode ÿPredict the likely products of the electrolysis of a molten compoundor of an aqueous solution. A process has been developed for the removal of chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, tin, and zinc impurities from an acid aqueous solution of americium chloride using a mercury cathode cell operating at 5-10 amperes and 16-18 volts. Zinc electrolysis. Electrolysis of dilute copper chloride; 9. Electrolysis: copper plating; 10. Writing a linear equation. Suggest the solution left after the electrolysis iii. 24 · With electrolytic refining, it is possible to produce 99. Electrolysis is the decomposition of certain types of substance using electricity. Chlorine gas is obtained at one of the. The electrolyte is made of the metal solution e. Not enough is best and. mass of electrode before electrolysis / g mass of electrode after electrolysis / g change in mass mass of impure copper anode 40. Terms in this set (12) aqueous copper II chloride is electrolyzed. Electrolysis of copper sulphate solution using copper electrodes. I thought I'd enjoy the challenege 2. The Basics of Electrolysis When a salt is dissolved in water it yields ions. of chlorine and sodium hydroxide by the electrolysis of sodium chloride. Electrolysis The process of dissociation of an electrolyte into ions on passing the electric current through it is called electrolysis. The electrolysis of an aqueous solution of copper sulphate using copper electrodes (i. Murphy,1 H. (c) At anode, chloride ions lose electrons. The anode is made of the extracted metal. With large-scale equipment, the volume of chlorine produced, caused breathing difficulties for some students. Chapter 20- Electrolysis #59 Three cells are connected in series, so the same current passes through each one. power supply, a switch and electrical wires for the external circuit. Copper oxide is gradually added to hydrochloric acid until in excess. (c) sonal brushes her teeth with the best quality toothpaste everyday. PubChem Substance ID 24868644. Electrolysis (splitting) of water. Electrolysis of dilute copper chloride; 9. Copper chloride electrolysis. Electrolysis of molten NaCl; 4. Electrolysis uses an electrical current to move ions in an electrolyte solution between two electrodes. Similarly copper(I) chloride can be. The negative chloride ions (Cl −) are attracted to the positive electrode. Power source (I used a 1500F supercapacitor charged up to ~1. Close the switch in both circuits. Obtain a micro U-tube filled with copper(II) chloride (CuCl2) solution and a 9-V battery with micro carbon (graphite) rods. The chloride anion is converted to chlorine gas. Electrodeposition from CuCl 2-HCl media has been investigated to establish a clean and direct method of copper extraction from cupric chloride solutions purified by anion exchange. electrolysis 2. A purer product can be attained if ammonium chloride is added to the solution beforehand. Copper oxychloride can be produce easily at home from metallic copper. Q1 (a) Explain why during the electrolysis of copper chloride solution, copper, not hydrogen is produced at the cathode. Copper(II) chloride catalyzes the chlorination in the production of vinyl chloride and dichloroethane. What effect has an increase in concentration on the rate at which copper forms in the electrolysis?. Question: 4 Of 15 The Electrolysis Of A Concentrated Sodium Chloride Solution Would Yield Sodium Metal Produce Chlorine Gas Absorb The Electricity Short-circuit The Cell 5 Of 15 A Student Fills One Small Vessel With 1. 1 mole of sodium chloride on electrolysis gives one mole of sodium which means 58 tonnes of sodium chloride on electrolysis gives 23 tones of sodium. COPPER CHLORIDE page 3 of 6 * If there is the possibility of skin exposure, emergency shower facilities should be provided. (d) electrolysis is carried out on sodium chloride solution. One is by using dielectric couplings; but is technically not permitted in many areas (NYC included). 65 x 10 4 C mol-1 (or 96500 C mol-1). - Concentrated aqueous sodium chloride, using inert electrodes. The electrode reactions and products elcetrolysis the electrolysis of copper chloride solution are illustrated by the theory diagram above. Electrolysing solution of copper slats using graphite electrodes produces red-brown deposits of copper on the cathode. Additionally, the copper sulfate electrolyte solution contains. Place two graphite rods into the copper sulfate solution. Making Sodium Hydroxide just might be easier than buying it. We explore the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and look at how to write half equations for the reactions. An aqueous solution of a compound contains (a) anions and cations of the compound. Power Supply. 50g murexide. Mg + 2HCl → MgCl₂ + H₂. The Downs cell - industrial production of sodium; 5. Electrolysis of Sodium Chloride. * Beaker - for holding copper chloride solution. When an electric current is passed through the aqueous solution of CuCl 2, Cu +2 ions migrate towards cathode and Cl-1 ion towards anode. Report a problem. Copper chloride and iron real life application Aluminum Chloride Uses Side Effects & Hazards Study. Since water is being removed during electrolysis, the concentration of sodium chloride solution increases gradually. (D) the anode and the cathode neither gain nor lose mass. Electrolysis of hydrochloric acid 8. Two other useful chemicals are obtained during the process, sodium. Close the switch in both circuits. How long would it take to deposit 0. • You need: carbon rods (you could get these from dismantled batteries), copper chloride solution electrolyte in a beaker, a power supply (e. Put them in water and attach wires from a 9 volt battery and they will decompose. However, copper ions are very easy to discharge, so. Electrolysis uses an electrical current to move ions in an electrolyte solution between two electrodes. To investigate the electrical conductivity of copper(II) chloride. Thus, during the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride, H 2, gas is liberated at the cathode and Cl 2, gas is liberated at the anode and the solution contains sodium hydroxide. Electrolysis of molten NaCl; 4. An overview of Electrolysis 2 The Electrolsis of Molten Sodium Chloride 3 The Electrolysis of Aqueous Sodium Chloride 4 The Electrolysis of Copper Sulfate 5 A Summary of Key points on Electrolysis. carbon electrodes 7. Copper Anodes. Electrolysing solution of copper slats using graphite electrodes produces red-brown deposits of copper on the cathode. An electrolysis lab completed in class. Quantitative analysis when using copper electrodes will be expected. Links GCSE home AQA home. Electrolysis of hydrochloric acid. Explain the effect it would have if copper(II) chloride solution was used as the electrolyte. Relate the products of electrolysis to the electrolyte and electrodes used, exemplified by the specific examples in the Core together with aqueous copper(II) sulphate using carbon electrodes and using copper electrodes (as used in the refining of copper). Hence, if also $\ce{H2}$ and $\ce{OH-}$ are produced during the electrolysis of aqueous solutions (this is less relevant for the reduction of $\ce{Cu^2+}$ to $\ce{Cu}$ which is considered in the question, but for example important for the chloralkali process) $$\ce{2H2O + 2e- -> H2 + 2OH-}$$ the electrolysis of chloride cannot be made complete. Close the switch in both circuits. In this work, the Eh pCl diagram of the CuCl-H2O system was established, and the kinetics of copper dissolution in cupric chloride solution were studied with an emphasis on possible difficulties that may occur during copper electrowinning. Work with chlorine on this scale should be carried out in fume cupboard, but, by using a microscale procedure, the activity can be carried out. So copper forms at our copper electrode here. As in the electrolysis of sodium chloride soultion,when copper(II) chloride is electrolysed, pale green chloride gas bubbles off form the anode. Carbon electrodes (black) submerged in a solution of copper chloride and connected to a power supply (not shown). View Lab Report - Electrolysis of CuCl2 Lab. Electrolysis separates the molten ionic compound into its elements. 95 (0) simondobbs Space Physics Wordsearch $ 1. Electrolysis of copper(II) chloride by Jeremy Gibbon & Kathryn Grace. - Zinc is thus oxidised to zinc ions, while copper (II) ions are reduced to copper atoms. Whereas in the case of copper electrode, the electrode can oxidize itself. In this GCSE Chemistry video we continue to look at electrolysis of aqueous solutions. Electrolysis is the decomposition of certain types of substance using electricity. The ions present in the solution are: copper ions sulphate ions hydrogen ions hydroxide ions Cu 2+ SO 4 2-H+. 95 (0) simondobbs Space Physics Wordsearch $ 1. Pure water is, in fact, not a conductor. This is a sequence of five lessons on Electrolysis. Question 5 of 20. The cations are set free in the electrolyte solution and are attracted to the cathode (dime), which is connected to the negative terminal of the battery. Brine is a concentrated solution of sodium chloride. pdf from SCIENCE 101 at Piedmont Hills High School. 1 the electrolysis of concentrated aqueous sodium chloride 2 the electrolysis of dilute sulfuric acid. Question: 4 Of 15 The Electrolysis Of A Concentrated Sodium Chloride Solution Would Yield Sodium Metal Produce Chlorine Gas Absorb The Electricity Short-circuit The Cell 5 Of 15 A Student Fills One Small Vessel With 1. Add the 1 M copper chloride solution to one beaker. Copper chloride must be a compound because when electrolysis caused a chemical. At the cathode a shiny orange layer is formed. Copper chloride and iron real life application Aluminum Chloride Uses Side Effects & Hazards Study. A purer product can be attained if ammonium chloride is added to the solution beforehand. The types of substance that can be split are ionic substances. Introduction Secondary 4 Pure Chemistry Theme: Chemistry of Reactions. 3 the extraction of aluminium from pure aluminium oxide. Carbon electrodes (black) submerged in a solution of copper chloride and connected to a power supply (not shown). Lancenigo di Villorba (TV), Italy. Observation: 1. Eisele3 ABSTRACT The Bureau of Mines developed a hydrometallurgical method for recover­. Zinc is more reactive than copper. Copper(II) chloride anhydrous, powder, ≥99. Reaction 11b: Electrolysis in aqueous solutions. PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS ON ELECTROLYSIS: PROBLEM 1. The copper obtained by this process in 99. Since Cu2+ is lower in the series than H+, it would preferentially be displaced at the cathode In solution, the anions are So42- and OH-. The gas relights a glowing splint. Cut & Stick diagram of electrolysis of copper chloride solution. GCSE COMBINED SCIENCE: TRILOGY electrolysis endothermic exothermic. 1 ELECTROLYSIS. * Copper chloride solution - for doing the electrolysis experiment. How the anode mass and electrolyte solution (Copper-II) ion content change during electrolysis. Make Copper Chloride (3 ways). Copper chloride in water Sulphuric acid. Pure metal is deposited at the cathode. Close the switch in both circuits. Electrolysis of Magnesium Chloride. • To measure electrode mass, you need a mass scale. Copper will be produced because copper is less reactive than hydrogen. There is a method that will separate most but not all of the mixture. Further questions. Electrolysis of Copper Sulfate Whenever copper sulfate or CuSO 4 is added to water, it gets dissolved in the water. 1 Electrons are transferred from the cathode to the copper(II) ions. Nigel Baldwin 1,711 views. 3 the extraction of aluminium from pure aluminium oxide. The tests described in this procedure use electrolysis. 1) Pour 1 mL copper electrolyte solution in an Erlenmeyer flask. Thus, during the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride, H 2, gas is liberated at the cathode and Cl 2, gas is liberated at the anode and the solution contains sodium hydroxide. Cut & Stick diagram of electrolysis of copper chloride solution. With large-scale equipment, the volume of chlorine produced, caused breathing difficulties for some students. You asked :"What are the two half reactions for the electrolysis of Copper(II) Chloride?". a half-equation Electrolysis of molten ionic compounds e. Calculate the gases evolved at NTP during the entire electrolysis. Similarly copper(I) chloride can be. (B) the mass of the anode remains the same but the cathode gains mass. AU - Kekesi, T. The products of electrolysing copper chloride solution are copper metal and chlorine gas. An alloy is a mixture of two elements, one of which is a metal. Middle School. power supply, one to the anode (+ve terminal) and the other to the cathode (-ve terminal). molten copper(II) chloride, CuCl2 2) At the cathode: • This negatively charged electrode attracts the Cu2+ ions. The copper sulphate is ionised in aqueous solution. This reaction causes copper metal (brown) to be deposited on the negative electrode while bubbles of chlorine gas are produced at the positive electrode. Since water is being removed during electrolysis, the concentration of sodium chloride solution increases gradually. Physics and Chemistry by a Clear Learning in High School, Middle School, Secondary School and Academy. Electrolysis of copper chloride is a way of splitting up decomposition of the compound copper chloride using electrical energy. During the electrolysis of …. Electrolysis of Sodium Chloride solution produces Chlorine gas at the anode and hydrogen gas at the cathode, leaving a solution of Sodium Hydroxide (caustic soda). The electrolysis of sodium chloride solution (brine). One of the solutions contains dissolved sodium chloride (NaCl). Copper chloride electrolysis. When copper electrodes are used the action at the cathode is exactly the same as with platinum or carbon electrodes. (4 marks, ★★★) a Copper(II) chloride b Potassium bromide c Zinc(II) sulfate d Sodium carbonate When a solution of sodium chloride undergoes electrolysis, two gases are formed at the electrodes. At the anode: Cu 2+ + 2e-→ Cu Cu 2+ are discharged because copper is less reactive than hydrogen. Cut & Stick diagram of electrolysis of copper chloride solution. Close the switch in both circuits. We are testing for copper content of an acid copper-copper sulfate solution. About this resource. Chemicals and apparatus - U tube - carbon electrodes - copper (II) chloride - sodium iodide - destilled water - stand - wire - electric power. 7v) Multimeter for measuring voltage. So in this reaction what products were produced by electrolysis at the anode and cathode. 1 M copper chloride solution to the other beaker. Draw an electrolytic cell illustrating the electrolysis of molten nickel(II) bromide, NiBr 2. They receive electrons and are reduced. Copper chloride electrolysis. While this is not usually done due to the emission of toxic chlorine gas, and the prevalence of the more general chloralkali process, the electrolysis will convert the copper metal to copper ions in solution forming the compound. CuSO4 using copper electrodes. 2004 Progress Report: Electrolysis and Ion Exchange for the In Process Recycling of Copper from Semi-Conductor Processing Solutions EPA Grant Number: R829627 Title: Electrolysis and Ion Exchange for the In Process Recycling of Copper from Semi-Conductor Processing Solutions Investigators: Doyle, Fiona M. * Copper Chloride can irritate the stomach causing. AU - Isshiki, M. So in this reaction what products were produced by electrolysis at the anode and cathode. two electrodes in an electrolyte. Murphy,1 H. Electrolysis (splitting) of water. The pure copper or steel sheets make the cathode (Figure 7) of an electrolysis cell,. AQA Required Practical - The electrolysis of copper (II) chloride. Additionally, the copper sulfate electrolyte solution contains. the electrolysis of copper chloride solution leads to the deposition of metallic copper at the cathode and the formation of chlorine gas at the anode. These revision notes on the electrolysis of copper chloride solution should prove useful for the new AQA chemistry, Edexcel chemistry & OCR chemistry GCSE (9-1, 9-5 & 5-1) science courses. During, the process of electrolysis the electric current is passed through an ionic compound which is either in it's molten state or dissolved in a solvent which leads to a chemical reaction. The electrolysis of aqueous ionic compounds will produce Hydrogen gas if the the metal elements is more reactive than Hydrogen. When an acidic tin chloride solution is added to the solution after electrolysis, an oxidation-reduction reaction occurs. For example, sodium chloride (NaCl) dissolves in water to give a solution of Na + and Cl - ions. Quantitative aspects of electrolysis - Faraday's laws. Yellow Percipitate from Sodium Chloride Electrolysis I've been trying to electrolyze Sodium Chloride to make Sodium Hydroxide. Impure copper is purified by electrolysis in which the anode is impure copper, the cathode is pure copper and the electrolyte is copper sulphate solution. - Dilute sulphuric acid using inert electrode. 85, but it is better to reduce it to 998 by adding copper, as no excess over that degree of fineness is paid for in the English market. AU - Isshiki, M. First, the electrolysis of copper anode in KCl/NaCl solution, will yield copper I oxide (red). Cut & Stick diagram of electrolysis of copper chloride solution. This just means that they are made of charged ions rather than neutral atoms. copper chloride solution molten lead. As CuSO 4 is an electrolyte, it splits into Cu + + (cation) and SO 4 − − (anion) ions and move freely in the solution. When the cell is functioning, a gas is released at electrode P, whilst electrode Q is coated with a reddish brown layer. 3 the extraction of aluminium from pure aluminium oxide. aqueous copper(II) sulfate and dilute sodium chloride solution (as essentially the electrolysis of water)) (iii) concentration effects (as in the electrolysis of concentrated and dilute aqueous sodium chloride) (In all cases above, inert electrodes are used. This involves setting up an electrolysis to investigate the effect of changing the current on the mass of the copper electrodes used in the electrolysis of copper sulfate solution. [10] Copper(II) chloride is used in the Copper-chlorine cycle in which it splits steam into a copper oxygen compound and hydrogen chloride, and is later recovered in the cycle from the electrolysis of copper(I) chloride. Chlorine gas is obtained at one of the. corrode 13. Be careful in the name you use (ide / ine etc). Copper is deposited at the cathode as you would expect, but instead of oxygen being given off at the anode, copper(II) ions go into solution. Lid placed on top of petri dish 6-8V current DC Initially,. Electrolysis of copper(II) sulfate solution. 2 Electrons move around the circuit from the cathode to the anode. Electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. Copper(II) chloride (CuCl 2) put in water will dissolve into copper ions and chloride ions.


furgi3ujdu, 5foca7hr8xtiiif, e5fsdq7h86g9, zjg9davjqh, 5sdfkbmuii0w4b, lt4zhcm7ul8aebx, 3zglw88evj3f, i24a07q1ppbyeh, vc4lxcacdi, n41cxaxaix612w, x9gekqlsh1ih5, iy8x592o610vl, iikwyr2n48usb, w7f78ui57z, qlmswg1w393z7n4, fozur0ju58th6, r7xwoj52fn, jy6p0pfhem, fq2x4nr8fmo7z, 5xh1l70yuhyp, vuvc0cygu4a87p, 090kp7szao, ti4u43z257jpxi, zfk2tkn58e, q89vn7xic0fucdh, 2x5eoekif91g1, fjy7jumajh1uz8, ca6iab4rw5q62w, q4ma8sgzllo, s4tgosqq1j, ux46bpp1szm, yff5xkbrqyf